Shetyobinebebi
8. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
13 Ivl 09, 18:49:26
FRIDRIX SHLEGELI(1772-1829)daibada hanoveris biurgerul ojaxshi.mshoblebis survilis shesabamisad sheudga iurisprudenciis sheswavlas getingenis universitetshi.
Laifcigis universitetshi shlegeli swavlobs klasikur filologiasa da filosofias.
1796 wels igi gadadis ienashi.am periodshi misi nashromebi yuradgebas iqceven.matgan agsanishnavia nashromebi-"berznuli poeziis sheswavlis shesaxeb"(1797)
"cda respublikanizmis cnebis shesaxeb"(1796)
"georg forsteri"(1797)
Fridrix shlegelis nashromebs warmoadgens "kritikuli fragmentebi"(1797) da gansakutrebit,1798 wels gamoqveynebuli "fragmentebi".tavis adrindel nawarmoebebshi shlegeli dgas ganmanatleblobisadmi pozitiuri damokidebulebis niadagze.igi sachirod tvlis yvela qveyanashi respublikuri wyobis damyarebas,agiarebs xalxis uplebas moaxdinos ajanyeba mchagvrelis winaagmdeg,garkveulad ixreba germaniashi arsebuli politikuri wyobis revoluciuri gardaqmnis tvalsazrisisaken.
"Fragmentebshi"gatarebuli koncefciis mxatvruli ilustraciaa romani "Lucinde"(1799)es romani warmoadgens im nimushs,rasac shlegeli uwodebs romantikul ironias,romelsac sapuzvlad udevs obieqtis fixteseburi uaryofa da agiareba mxolod subieqtisa.
1800 wels shlegeli aqveynebs teoriul nashroms "saubari poeziis shesaxeb",romelic otxi narkvevisagan shedgeba.titoeuli nawili warmoadgens monologs filosofiuri diskusiis romelime monawilisa,romelta saxitac avtors ara mxolod tavisi tavi gamohyavs,aramed v.shlegelic,agretve shelingi da shlaiermaxeri.
1801 wels shlegeli miemgzavreba berlinshi.
1802-04 wlebshi igi imyofeba parizshi,sadac swavlobs indur literaturas da sanskrits.
1808 wels ibechdeba misi nashromi-"indoelta enisa da sibrznis shesaxeb",romelshic avtori indoevropul enata natesaobis mtkicebas axdens.
1805 wels ibechdeba shlegelis ukanaskneli periodis mnishvnelovani nashromi-"zveli da axali literatura",romelic avtorma meternixs miuzgvna.
Konservatiulad ganwyobil mwerlad gvevlineba fridrix shlegeli,roca am axal nashromshi romantikulis bunebis shesaxeb laparakobs.romantikuls aigivebs qristianultan da am azrit miichnevs mas axali epoqis dasawyisad literaturashi.am aspeqtshi ixilavs igi sheqspirsa da kalderons.sheqspiri miachnia upro nakleb qristianulad ganwyobil mwerlad,vidre kalderoni.amgvari arsebiti xasiatis naklovanebebis miuxedavad shlegelis "zveli da axali literatura"warmoadgens sayuradgebo nashroms axali drois literaturismcodneobashi.
9. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
13 Ivl 09, 23:42:30
JAKOMO LEOPARDI(1798-1837)
Italiuri romantizmis ganvitarebashi gamochenili figura,cnobili lirikosi poeti.
Leopardi qalaq rekanatishi daibada.8 wlis asakidan eupleba evropul da zvel enebs-latinurs berznulsa da zvel ebrauls.
1818 wels ibechdeba misi pirveli leqsebi.misi cxovreba tragikulad warimarta.mas arc bedniereba da arc dideba rgebia.
Poeti ganicdida winaagmdegobas rogorc tavis pirad cxovrebashi,aseve samshoblos bedis gamo.misi piradi cxovreba ukugmartad warimarta.ojaxshi batonobda tedamisi-despoturi bunebis gulcivi qali.ertaderti shveba mistvis kitxva iyo,magram gonebis dazabulobam misi janmrteloba shearyia.mshobliuri saxlidan wasuli,leopardi italiis sxvadasxva qalaqshi cxovrobda.
Leopardis shemoqmedebiti memkvidreoba prozas da poezias moicavs.igi filosofiuri xasiatis nawarmoebebs qmnida,werda xelovnebisa da literaturis sakitxebze.
Traqtatshi "erti italielis azrebi romantikul poeziaze"(1819) igi agfrtovanebulia antikuri poeziis silamazit.
Umagles janrad leopardi poezias miichnevda.tavis leqsebis krebuls man "simgerebi"daarqva.pirvelma leqsma italiisadmi(1818) patriotuli jgeradobit mashinve miipyro mkitxvelta yuradgeba.poeti italiis warsul didebas ugimgamo sinamdviles upirispirebs.
"samshoblov chemo!vxedav
Shens koshkebs,satopureebs,
Kedelt nangrevebs,
Gmirt qandakebas,
Magram ver vxedav,
Imat didebas"
Patriotuli lirikis asetive mwvervals warmoadgens leqsi"dantes zegls"(1818).igi daiwera florenciashi didi poetis zeglis agebastan dakavshirebit.
Leopardi patriotul sakitxs exeba zog iset leqshiac,romelshic pirovnuli sakitxebia wamochrili,magalitad,leqsi "dis,paolinas qorwinebaze"(1821)
Leopardis sevdiani poeziis mwvervalad itvleba misi leqsi "aziashi momtabare mwyemsis gamiseuli simgera"(1830)
Jakomo leopardis leqsebi gonebas ugvizebda,moqmedebisken ubizgebda da samshoblos siyvaruls unergavda italiel xalxs.
10. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
14 Ivl 09, 14:06:14
UOLTER SKOTI(1771-1832),didi shotlandieli mwerali,daibada edinburgshi,bavshvobidanve dainteresebuli iyo istoriit,folklorit.ojaxis tradiciisamebr miigo iuridiuli ganatleba,ert xans iuridiul saqmianobasac misdevda.
Skoti gatacebuli iyo germanuli romantikuli literaturit da sheiswavla germanuli ena,misi yuradgeba miibyro baladis janrma.
Man targmna da 1796 wels gamoaqveyna biurgeris ori balada"Leonore" da "veluri monadire"
Xalxuri literaturis siyvarulis shedegi iyo,rom 1802-03 wlebshi skoti aqveynebs "shotlandiis sazgvris simgerebs",romelic warmoadgens sxvadasxva saxis baladebis sam krebuls.
1805 wels gamodis mwerlis pirveli poema"ukanaskneli menestrelis simgera"
Momdevno wlebis ganmavlobashi aqveynebs ramdenime poetur nawarmoebs
"Marmioni"(1808)
"Tbis qalbatoni"(1810)
"Rokbi"(1813)
"Kunzulis meupe"(1815)
1814 wels uolter skoti anonimurad aqveynebs istoriul romans "ueverli" da am xnidan moyolebuli gardacvalebamde mxolod prozaul nawarmoebebs qmnis.
Man dawera ocdaatamde istoriuli romani,ramdenime motxroba,dramatuli nawarmoebebi,samecniero,literaturatmcodneobiti da istoriuli gamokvlevebi,romlebic zalian saintereso masalas sheicavs misi literaturul-mxatvruli saqmianobis gansaxilvelad.matgan mnishvnelovania- "draidenis mogvaweoba"(1808)
"sviftis mogvaweoba"(1814)
"Napoleon bonapartis cxovreba"(1827)
"shotlandiis istoria"(1829-30)
Skotis shemoqmedebashi gamoikveteba ori etapi.pirvel periodshi igi ziritadad qmnis poetur nawarmoebebs,xolo mogvianebit ki istoriul romanebs.
Misi pirvelive nawarmoebi"ukanaskneli menestrelis simgera" sheicavs im elementebs,rac sazogadod damaxasiatebelia uolter skotis shemoqmedebisatvis.
Skotis romanebidan ert-erti sauketesoa "Rob Roi"(1817)
Mwerlis yvelaze cnobili romania "aivenho"(1819).igi asaxavs XII saukunis inglisis cxovrebas.es is droa inglisis istoriashi,rodesac mtkicdeboda feodaluri urtiertobebi da qveyanashi mimdinareobda brzola anglosaqsebsa da normanebs shoris.
Shua saukuneobriv ambavs agwers uolter skoti tavis romanshi "Quentin daruardi".moqmedeba XV saukunis saprangetshi xdeba,magram mtavari moqmedi piri shotlandieli aristokratia,romelic mepe lui XI-is amalashia.
Burjuaziis istoriuli revoluciis periodtan dakavshirebuli romanebi,"vudstoki"(1826) da "puritanebi"(1816)
Romanshi "vudstoki" agwerilia inglisis sinamdvile mepe charlz I sikvdilit dasjis shemdeg.
Romanshi "puritanebi" skoti agwers inglisuri burjuaziuli revoluciis shedegebs.1660wels inglishi moxda stiuartebis dinastiis restavracia,romelsac mohyva reaqciis wlebi.amastan dakavshirebit 1679 wels shotlandiashi daiwyo amboxeba,romlis sataveshi shotlandieli puritanebi iyvnen.romanic am periodis agwerit iwyeba da mtavrdeba uiliam III oranelis taxtze asvlit da qveyanashi kompromisuli mshvidobis damyarebit.
11. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
15 Ivl 09, 12:04:20
SHANDOR PETEFI(1823-1849)
XIX saukunis ungreli poeti.petefis mogvaweobis dro mzime iyo ungretisatvis.chamorchenili,feodalur-agraruli qveyana-ungreti,warmoadgenda avstriis habsburgebis dinastiis kolonias.
Shandor petefi daibada qalaq kish-kereshshi(ungretshi).misi namdvili gvaria petrovichi.petefi literaturuli psevdonimia,ungrul enaze nishnavs petres dzes.
Petefis bavshvobis bednieri cxovreba shecvala sigaribem,dunais wyaldidobis dros talgebma walekes mati saxli,garda amisa poetis mama daagalates mevaleebma.
Petefma swavlas tavi daaneba da wavida peshtisaken.igi iyo moxetiale dasis aqtiori,jariskaci,kvlav aqtiori.
Xetialis dros petefi yoveltvis werda,sul male gaxda ungretis saxelgantqmuli poeti.shemdeg igi gaxda ungretis nacionaluri gantavisuplebisatvis mebrzoli adamianebis winamzgoli,1848 wlis revoluciis ert-erti beladi.
Petefis azrit,mwerali mowodebulia sheasrulos tavisi didi moqalaqeobrivi movaleoba,sakutari nawerebit xalxs wauzgves brzolashi.pirvel rigshi swored es unda aisaxos poetis nawarmoebshi da ara avtoris piradi grznobebi.
Leqshi "XIX saukunis poetebs"petefi ase mimartavs poetebs:
"ara ubralo gartobisatvis
Shtagonebuli simgera minda,
Roca qnars igeb xelshi poeto,
Movaleoba gaxsovdes wminda!
Piradi sevda da sixaruli
Shens simgerashi tu ismis mudam,
Xels nugar axleb jadosnur simebs,
Simgera sheni aravis unda.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rodesac azris mze izeimebs
Da gaanatebs yvelas advilad,
Chven mashin vityvit:"aha movedit,
Agtqmuli mxare vpovet namdvilad"
Manam ki mklavi ar davasvenot,
Brzolis simzime bolomdis vzidot,
Da cocxlebs iqneb arc ki gvegirsos
Chveni garjis da brzolebis jildo".
Petefim ara erti da ori leqsi uzgvna tavis samshoblos,tavis qveynis landshaptebs,siyvarulis grznobas da megobrebs,misi leqsi "yancha",bavshvobis megobari frinvelisadmia mizgvnili.magram yvelaze met sixaruls igi ganicdis samshoblos siyvarulshi:
"chemo qveyanav,sheni var,
Chemo uqrobo ciskaro,
Shens garda vin myvarebia,
Shens garda vin sheviyvaro!
Chemi xateba shena xar,
Es guli-sheni dazari,
Shentvis es gulic daiwvas,
Tazrisgan darches nacari.
Mxolod guls kvnesa agmoxdes,
Adre dangreuls,udgeurs,
Samshoblo iyos dgegrzeli,
Samshoblo iyos kurtxeul!"
Leqsebshi petefi tavs esxmis ungretis feodalur sazogadoebas-zviad aristokratebs,akritikebs sazogadoebis uqnara da uiniciativo penas.erti aseti zarmaci memamule gamoyvanili hyavs leqshi"pavle pato"
"mamam rac ar dautova,
Araferi abadia,
Iqve cxovrobs,sadac mamis
Zveli guda-nabadia.
Nu gahkicxavt-ungrelia,
Saqmes mitom ar ichqaris.
Ungretshi xom yvela misebr
Ambobs:"xvalec am tvis ari!"
Petefi tavisi qveynis tavadaznaurobis uqnarobas amxels sxva leqsebshic-"ungreli aznauri","mglebis simgera"(1847)
"erovnul simgerashi" petefi tanamemamuleebs mouwodebs sheiaragebuli ajanyebisken.
Misi leqsebidan agsanishnavia:"me erti fiqri mawuxebs"(1847)
"ai chemi mshvild-isari"
"saxrchobelaze xelmwifeebi"
"sicocxle an sikvdili"
Petefis shemoqmedebis sauketeso qmnilebaa xalxur motivebze dawerili "ianosh raindi"(1844).am epikur poemashi motxrobilia gauxarebeli mijnurebis romantikuli ambavi.
Xanmokle cxovrebis miuxedavad petefma datova atasamde leqsi,romani,drama,dgiurebi,politikuri statiebi,mogzaurobis chanawerebi,ramdenime poema,mat shoris sauketeso "ianosh raindi".
Rodesac kontrrevolucionerebma gailashqres ungretis revoluciis winaagmdeg am dros petefi ibrzoda im nawilebtan ertam,romelsac xelmzgvanelobda poloneli emigranti-revolucioneri,generali iozef bemi.amave brzolebshi,1849 wlis zapxulshi daigupa shandor petefi,sruliad axalgazrda(26 wlis).shegeshvaris brzolebis shemdeg,atasze meti sxva mebrzolis cxedartan ertad,petefi moatavses zmata saplavshi.gadmocemen,rom am dros poeti ar yofila mkvdari,iyo sustad mkerdshi mzime chrilobis gamo.roca avstrielma jalatma petefi ormoshi chaagdo,poetma sheszaxa"nu damasaplavebt,cocxali var"-"hoda chakvdi"upasuxa avstrielma da daayara chamqrali kiri.
12. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
16 Ivl 09, 0:32:13
PERSI BISHI SHELI(1792-1822)
Inglisuri revoluciuri romantizmis warmomadgeneli.
Daibada aristokratiul ojaxshi.tormeti wlis itonis aristokratiul skolashi miabares.skolashi despoturi rejimi iyo,umcires danashaulzec ki mowapeebs rozgi elodat.ukve aq uchndeba mas religiuri rwmenisadmi skepticizmi,sajarod ganucxadebs pedagogebs,rom gmerti ar arsebobso.aseti azrebis gavlenit wers leqsebs,poemebsa da romanebs.
1810wels sheli shedis oqsfordis universitetshi.aq igi iset wres daukavshirda sadac tavisuplebismoyvare suli supevda.aseti azrebis gavlenit anonimurad aqveynebs krebuls"mefis mkvlelis chanawerebi"(1810).krebuli ashkarad politikuri xasiatis iyo da universitetis xelmzgvaneloba didxans ezebda mis avtors.
1811 wels sheli aseve anonimurad aqveynebs pamflets "ateizmis aucilebloba",romelic mimartuli iyo universitetshi arsebuli sasuliero mecnierebebis winaagmdeg.shelis avtoroba dadginda da igi garicxes universitetidan.sul mokle xanshi mshobliuri saxlidanac gaagdes.
Sheli londonshi dasaxlda,imave wels colad sheirto ubralo medqnis qalishvili heriet uestbruki.poets misadmi upro shecodebis grznoba gaachnda,vidre siyvarulisa,radgan qalishvils sastikad chagravda tirani mama.shelis mshoblebi axla ukve sabolood amoigdeben shvils gulidan,uars amboben masze,rogorc memkvidreze da usaxsrod toveben.
1812 wels sheli irlandiashi miemgzavreba,rata monawileoba miigos irlandiis erovnul-ganmatavisuflebel mozraobashi inglisis winaagmdeg.
1813 wels aqveynebs "dedofal mabs"-arsebuli rejimis mimart protestis gamomxatvel nawarmoebs.amave xanebshi poeti grznobs rom misi colis shertva nachqarevad gadadgmuli nabiji iyo da cols shordeba.1814 wels irtavs uiliam godvinis qalishvils meris.
1816wels mis cxovrebashi tragikuli ambavi xdeba,misi pirveli coli tavs iklavs da shelis unda am qorwinebidan shezenili bavshvebi tavistan waiyvanos.magram opicialuri inglisi karg sababs poulobs javri iyaros masze,poets uars etyvian bavshvebis agrzdis uplebaze.iwyeba shelis devna,ciliswameba.sheli samudamod tovebs ingliss da miemgzavreba italiashi.1822 wels,rodesac patara gemit italiis sanapiros gaswvriv mgzavrobda,moulodnelad amovardnili qarishxlis shedegad gardaicvala.
1817 wels sheli aqveynebs lirikul-epikur poemas "islamis ajanyeba"
Sheli berzeni xalxis brzolas tavisuplebisatvis uzgvnis poemas "elada"(1822)
Ganmantavisuplebeli brzolis patositaa sheqmnili misi ert-erti nawarmoebi"gantavisuplebuli promete"(1819)
Poetis italiuri periodisatvis damaxasiatebelia realisturi tendenciebis momzlavreba.am mxriv sayuradgeboa tragedia "chenchi"(1819),romlis patossac aseve tiraniis winaagmdeg brzola warmoadgens.
Revoluciuri zalis gamoyenebas qadagebda sheli tavis daumtavrebel nawarmoebshi"charlz pirveli"
1819 wels poeti qmnis nawarmoebs"anarqiis maskaradi"
Revoluciuri gardaqmnebisatvis brzolas mouwodebs sheli sxvadasxva periodis leqsebshi:"oda tavisuplebisatvis mebrzolt","simgera ingliseli xalxisadmi",poema "piter bel mesame","inglisi 1819 wels",oda tavisuplebas"
Leqshi "oda dasavletis qars"(1819) gamoxatulia alegoria samyaros momavali revoluciuri gardaqmnebisa,xolo leqshi "ozimandias" nachvenebia rom yovelgvar tiranias daviwyeba elodeba.
Shelis lirikuli leqsebisgan,romlebic bunebisadmia mizgvnili,saantologio leqsebia "grubeli","oda torolas"
13. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
16 Ivl 09, 20:08:49
UILIAM GODVINI(1756-1836)
daibada kalvinisti mgvdlis ojaxshi.ertxans is sasuliero mogvaweobas misdevs,1783 wels chadis londonshi im ganzraxvit rom gaxdes mwerali.aq is upro grmad ecnoba ateistur mozgvrebebs,aqtiurad ebmeba demokratiul mozraobashi,gmobs yvela saxis tiranias.
Am sakitxtan dakavshirebit wers igi traqtats"politikuri samartlianoba"(1793),am nawarmoebshi godvini ayalibebs sazogadoebis socialuri mowyobis sakutar sistemas.akritikebs arsebul socialur struqturas,magram ar cnobs aravitar saxelmwifoebriobas-rac garkveulad anarqizmis qadagebaa.
Am nashromma yvelas yuradgeba miiqcia.wigni yvelaze zviri girda,magram xelosnebi puls agrovebdnen mis shesazenad.
Godvinma ganagrzo mogvaweoba ingliseli xalxis demokratiuli uplebebis dasacavad.amjerad is cdilobda tavisi ideebi gamoexata ara teoriul msjelobashi,aramed upro konkretuli pormit.aseti ganzraxvit igi wers tavis pirvel mxatvrul nawarmoebs-"kaleb uiliamss"(1794).mwerali am romanshi ayenebs sakitxs sazogadoebrivi samartlianobis shesaxeb.romani dramatiulia.nachvenebia fulis zala,romlis sashualebitac yovelgvari ukanonobis chadena sheizleba.
14. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
18 Ivl 09, 16:16:46
JORJ NOEL GORDON BAIRONI(1788-1824)
Daibada londonshi.1790wels dedas patara jorj baironi eberdinshi mihyavs,xolo erti wlis shemdeg movaleebisgan tavis dasagwevad saprangetshi gaqceuli misi mama gardaicvala da usaxsrebod datova coli da sami wlis vaji.
1798 wels baironi babuis zmis gardacvalebis shemdeg memkvidreobit igebs baironebis meeqvse lordis tituls da mamuls niustedshi,notingemis sagraposhi.
1801 wels baironi miabares aristokratiul skolashi-haroushi.aq gatarebuli wlebi mnishvnelovani etapia baironis msoplmxedvelobis chamoyalibebashi.
1805 wels poeti shedis kembrijis universitetis triniti kolejshi.
1809 wels baironi pirvelad shedis lordta palatashi da ikavebs pirvelsave adgils opoziciis rkamze.
1811-15wlebshi baironi aqveynebs "chaild harolds" da agmosavlur poemebs.sul upro izrdeba ganxetqileba masa da magal sazogadoebas shoris.
1815 wels colad irtavs mis anabel milbenqss.mati qorwineba uigblo gamodga,mat sheezinat qalishvili da qorwinebis wlistavze misi coli bavshvtan ertad mshoblebtan dabrunda da ganqorwineba moitxova.
1823 wlis zapxulshi miemgzavreba saberznetshi,rata monawileoba miigos berzeni xalxis erovnul-ganmatavisuplebel brzolashi turqi dampyroblebis winaagmdeg.leqsebita da iaragit xelshi,tavisi moqalaqeobrivi movaleobis shesrulebisas igupeba jorj baironi.cud amindshi mgzavrobisas cieba sheeyara da gardaicvala.misi guli saberznetshia damarxuli,tviton ki inglishi gadaasvenes da dakrzales.
Poeti italiashi yopnis periodshi wers romans"don juani",romelic daumtavrebelia.
1807 wels gamoscems krebuls sataurit"leqsebi sxvadasxva ambebis gamo",amave wlis shuaxanebshi ukve tavisi gvarit bechdavs mesame krebuls"mocaleobis jami".
Mnishvnelovania leqsi"mister foqsis sikvdilis gamo".mashi baironi sinanuls gamotqvams inglisis koloniata uplebebis cnobili damcvelis,vigebis partiis memarcxene prtis warmomadgenlis poqsis gardacvalebis gamo.
Leqsebshi "netavi viyo udardeli bavshvi","loh na gar","niustedis saabatostan ganshorebisas" baironi ukmayopilebas gamotqvams tanamedrove cxovrebit.
Leqsi"minevras wyevla" gamschvalulia patriotuli patosit.(1811).
Am periodis nawarmoebta shoris mnishvnelovania poema "chaild haroldis mogzauroba"
Baironis suli moqmedebas itxovs,magram realuri pirobebi xels ar uwyobs.am periodshi mis shemoqmedebashi tavs ichens sayoveltao uaryopis suliskveteba.am periodshi man dawera ramdenime poema:
"Giauri"(1813)
"Abidoseli sarzlo"(1813)
"Korsari"(1814)
"Lara"(1814)
"Korintos alya"(1816)
Am poemebs uwodeben agmosavlur poemebs,radgan mati moqmedeba agmosavletis qveynebshi vitardeba.
Napoleonis damarcxeba,reaqciis gamarjveba poetis pirovnul gulistkiviltan ertad mis shemoqmedebashi saintereso gamozaxils poulobs.1814/15 wlebshi baironi qmnis lirikis didebul nimushs-"ebraul melodiebs",wers poemas "shilionis tyve",romelshic agwerilia shilionis cixis dilegshi shvidi wlis ganmavlobashi tanjuli jeneveli respublikaneli fransua bonivaris ambavi,leqshi"soneti shilionis cixisadmi" upro mzlavrad jgers poetis mowodeba tavisuplebisadmi.
Imave wlis bolos baironi mogzaurobs alpebshi,sadac iwyebs dramatuli poemis"Manfredis"weras.
1817wlidan saberznetshi gamgzavrebamde baironi qmnis mraval saintereso nawarmoebs:
"Bepo"(1818)
"tasos chivili"(1817)
"Mazepa"(1819)
"oda veneciisadmi"(1819)
"dantes winaswarmetyveleba"(1821)
"marino faliero"(1821)
"ori foskari"(1821)
"kaeni"(1821)
"samsjavros xilva"(1822)
"brinjaos saukune"(1823)
Baironi agiarebul iqna rovoluciuri romantizmis udides poetad.misi saxeli,shemoqmedeba da saqmianoba sapuzvlad daedo XIX saukunis evropis qveynebshi arsebul mozraobas,romelsac baironizmi ewoda.
15. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
19 Ivl 09, 12:28:35
UILIAM BLEIKI(1757-1827)
Monawileobas igebda"londonis korespondentta sazogadoebis"mushaobashi,romlis brwyinvale shemoqmedeba daupasebeli darcha tanamedroveobas.sazogadoeba mas icnobda rogorc shesanishnav mxatvars,romelic tvitonve apormebda xolme tavis poetur krebulebs.mas ekutvnis dantes"gvtaebrivi komediis" graviurebi.
Adamianisadmi usazgvro siyvarulitaa gamschvaluli bleikis poezia.
Tavis ert-ert pirvel poetur krebulshi"umankoebis simgerebi"(1789) is gvacnobs tavis filosofias,romelic axlosaa renesansul utopiur naturfilosofiastan.
Leqsebis momdevno krebuli"gamocdilebis simgerebi"(1794),yuradgebas ipyrobs imit rom bleikis adrindeli sixalise sheicvala mzime ganwyobilebit.magram poetis mebrzoli suli gamochnda misi leqsebis wignebshi"safrangetis revolucia"(1791),"amerika"(1793),"albionis qalishvilta xilvani"(1793),aseve prozaul wignshi"samotxisa da jojoxetis qorwineba"(1790)
Uiliam bleikis shemoqmedebashi xshiria uritmo tetri leqsi,poets shemoaqvs metaforebi da xatebi,religiuri elementi misi msoplmxedvelobis arsebiti momentia,magram mistvis religia sustta qomagia.
Bleikis shemoqmedebashi,iseve rogorc miltontan ertmanets taviseburad sheexama mebrzoli meamboxisa da gvtismosavi adamianis msoplmxedveloba.
16. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
19 Ivl 09, 23:07:47
UILIAM UORDSUORTI(1770-1850)
Leikistebis,anu tbis skolis poeti(tbis skolis poetebi iyvnen uiliam uordsuorti,semiuel teilor kolriji da robert sauti)
Uordsuorti romantizmis ganvitarebis pirveli etapis ert-erti mnishvnelovani poeti.
Poetis shemoqmedeba misi msoplmxedvelobis shesabamisad ganvitarda.
1791-92 wlebshi uordsuorti miemgzavreba parizshi.am periodis shtabechdilebebi da poetis imdroindeli demokratiuli tendenciebi gamoikveta mis poetur krebulebshi"sagamos gaseirneba"(1793) da "mxatvruli chanaxatebi"(1793)
Rodesac saprangetis revolucias sisxlisgvra mohyva,uordsuortis imedebi demokratiuli cvlilebebis mimart pesimizmshi gadadis,rac gamochnda mis dramatul nawarmoebshi "sazgvartan mcxovrebni"(1795-96)
Soplis ubralo cxovreba poetis ziritadi temaa,amis shesabamisad unda iyos poetis mier shercheuli metyvelebac.is unda eyrdnobodes chveulebrivi xalxis enas.amit uordsuorti upirispirdeba xelovnuri metyvelebis mimdevar poetebs.
"lirikuli baladebis"krebuli uordsuortis teoriuli gamonatqvamebis ilustraciaa.igi agwers ubralo xalxis cxovrebas da swuxs patriarqaluri cxovrebis wesis rgvevis gamo.
Leqsebshi "farashi ukanaskneli","zmebi" poeti xatavs glexebis gachirvebas.xolo glexis bavshvebis saxeebi nachvenebia leqsebshi"sabralo siuzenis natvra","chven shvidni vart"
Poetis winaagmdegobebit agsavse buneba gamochnda tavis lirikul-epikur nawarmoebshi"preludi"(1799-1805),romelsac ar aqveynebs.is mxolod poetis gardacvalebis shemdeg gamoqveynda.preludshi agwerilia saprangetis revolucia,gamokvetilia revoluciis gmirebis calkeuli saxeebi.
Poetis shemoqmedebis ganvitareba momdevno etapze pasiur tendenciebs amjgavnebs.am periodidan zlierdeba mis shemoqmedebashi qveynad arsebuli usamartlobisagan ganze gandgomis tendencia.aseti ganwyobitaa sheqmnili misi nawarmoebebi:"oda valdebulebas"(1805-07)
"sonetebi mizgvnili tavisuplebisadmi"(1802-07)
"Londoni-1802weli"
"gaseirneba"(1814)
Uiliam uordsuorts girseuli adgili ukavia rogorc lirikos poets.samyaros taviseburi xedvisatvis man taviseburi poeturi metyvelebac gamoiyena.
17. mea[683](Off)Pas|Cit|PM
20 Ivl 09, 1:22:03
ROBERT SAUTI(1774-1843)
Tbis skolis poeti.axalgazrdobisas demokratiuli ideebis mimdevari,mogvianebit devnida rac odnav mainc liberaluri jgeradobisa iyo.
Sauti agprtovanebuli iyo saprangetis revoluciit,oci wlis wers socialur dramas"uot taileri",sadac agwers 1381 wlis glexta ajanyebis ambavs.
1795 wels sauti wers epikur poemas"Jana darki",romelshic gamohyavs saprangetis erovnuli gmiri qali,vinc ingliselebisgan atavisuplebs saprangets.
Shemoqmedebis adreul periodshi sautis calkeul leqsebshic gvxvdeba demokratiuli jgeradobis striqonebi.
Gviandel nawarmoebebshi:"talaba damangreveli"(1801)
"medok"(1805)
"kehamas wyevla"(1810)
"roderik,ukanaskneli guti"(1804)
"paragvauli ambavi"(1825)
sauti feodalur-saeklesio poziciaze dgas,qadagebs bediswerisadmi sherigebas.
sxva nawarmoebebshi is mxars uchers evropis xelmwifeta sagvto kavshirs,mimartuls revoluciuri mozraobebis chasaxshobad.nacionalistur tendenciebs amjgavnebs misi wigni"Nelsonis cxovreba"(1813)

1813 wlidan sauti poet laureatadaa archeuli,mas shemdeg rac am titulze uari ganacxada uolter skotma.am xnidan is inglisis mmartveli klasebis mexotbea.amis magalitia poema"samsjavros xilva"(1821),mizgvnili imjamad gardacvlili tirani mepis jorj mesamis xsovnisadmi.sapasuxod baironma amave sataurit gamoaqveyna gamanadgurebeli satira.momdevno taobebshi sautis memkvidreoba yvelaze nakleb popularulia tvit inglishic ki.
Rogorc cnobilia,baironi tavis nawarmoebebshi sautis winaagmdeg ilashqrebda.sautis shemoqmedebis reaqciuli mimartuleba upirispirdeboda romantizmis mebrzoli frtis ganvitarebas.

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